As a result of the structural changes in the institute, November 2013 in the Department of Onomastics became as part of the Department of Modern Azerbaijani Language and it is advisable to have a look at both departments covering periods in the history of department. Department of Modern Azerbaijani language began to operate since 1945.
The most important problems of modern Azerbaijani language, modern state, functional grammar and styles, speech issues were studied in the department. In early days, department was headed by a prominent linguist Professor Mukhtar Huseynzade. In the years of 1955-1989 Zarifa Budaqova was appointed director of the department. In connection with the structural reform of the institute in 1984 department merged with the Department of speech, and functioned as Department of Modern Azerbaijani language and speech culture. In 1992-2008 the department was led by honored scientist, Professor Museib Bayram Mammadov.
In 2009-2013 PhD Sitara Aliyeva head of the unit. Department of Onomastics was organized in 1989, until 1992 was called as "Onomastics", in 1992-1998 was called as "Departmeny of Applied linguistics and onomastics", since 1998, activated again with the name "Department of Onomastics" was led by doctor of Philology, Professor Qara Ibrahim Mashadiyev. Studies as "Ono explanatory dictionary of the Azerbaijani language", "Origin of toponyms in Georgia", "Spelling and orthoepy principles of the onomastic units", "Onomastics of Azerbaijani folklore", "Linguistic analysis of the history of onomastic units in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic", "Areas of Azerbaijani toponyms " "Onomastic vocabulary of typology, stratigraphy and stratification issues," and so on can be considered as the achievements of the department.
"Place names of the Caucasus" (1990), "Turkish toponyms in Afghanistan" (1995), "Onomastics of Azerbaijani language" (1987), "The onomastic dictionaries" (2000), "The principles of compiling dictionaries of onomastic" (2001), "The toponyms of Azerbaijan"(2002) and other monographs of department have been prepared and submitted for publication.
The main research directions of the Department of Modern Azerbaijani language are to research systemic and structural characteristics of the Azerbaijani language, introduction of the latest achievements of linguistics, the study of language in the context of synchronous, the study of functional grammar of the language and styles, the study of the issues as well as the act of speaking, to explore the historical and comparative perspective of onomastic layer of the Azerbaijani language and develope highly qualified personnel. The department is headed by doctor of philological sciences Ismayil Kazimov.